民族音乐歌曲联盟

中国乐器之琵琶Chinese traditional instrument Pipa

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魔女蓝:我其实早该和大家来介绍一下琵琶,毕竟这是我从四岁开始就弹到今天的乐器,因为太熟悉了,反而忽略了它对于很多中国人来说都模糊不清的历史面貌。



琵琶,是东亚传统弹拨乐器,已经有二千多年的历史。最早被称为“琵琶”的乐器大约在中国秦朝出现。“琵琶”二字中的“珏”意为“二玉相碰,发出悦耳碰击声”,表示这是一种以弹碰琴弦的方式发声的乐器。“比”指“琴弦等列”。“巴”指这种乐器总是附着在演奏者身上,和琴瑟不接触人体相异。在唐朝以前,琵琶也是汉语里对所有鲁特琴族(又称琉特属)弹拨乐器的总称。中国琵琶更传到东亚其他地区,发展成现时的日本琵琶、朝鲜琵琶和越南琵琶。


The pipa (pronounced "pee-paa") is a four-stringed lute, one of the oldest Chinese musical instruments with over 2000 years of history. The term pipa consists of two Chinese characters symbolizing two playing techniques (known as "Tan" and "Tiao" today) while their pronunciations p'i and p'a are imitations of the sounds produced accordingly. The latter fact is however not often mentioned in the literatures about pipa.


下图为阮,虽然样子和月琴很像,但音色很不一样,阮的音色就和古典吉他类似了,用三角形拨片来演奏。




(下图为1886年的月琴样子,可以看出弦是双股的,和上图阮四根弦单独排练不一样。月琴音色清脆柔弱。)



最早见于史载的是汉代刘熙《释名·释乐器》:“批把本出于胡中,马上所鼓也。推手前曰批,引手却曰把,象其鼓时,因以为名也。”意即批把是骑在马上弹奏的乐器,向前弹出称做批,向后挑进称做把;根据它演奏的特点而命名为“批把”。在古代,敲、击、弹、奏都称为鼓。当时的游牧人骑在马上好弹琵琶,因此为“马上所鼓也”。


The historical development of the pipa has been a progressive process from its very beginning with few major fusions. The earliest Chinese written texts about the pipa dated back at least to the second century BC. For instance, Xi Liu of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD) described in his book, The Definition of Terms - On Musical Instruments, that the name of the instrument pipa originally referred to two finger techniques. The two Chinese characters p'i and p'a stood originally for the two movements, i.e. plucking the strings forwards and backwards, respectively. It is commonly known now that the term "pipa" used ot be the generic name for all pluck-string instruments of the ancient times. For instance, in the Qin Dynasty (222-207 BC), there had been a kind of plucked-instrument, known as xiantao, with a straight neck and a round sound-body played horizontally, which is considered one of the predecessors of the pipa.


这是阿拉伯的乌特琴



这是古波斯的巴尔巴特琴


到了公元五、六世纪随着中国与西域民族商业和文化交流的加强, 从中亚地区传入一种曲项琵琶, 当时称作 "胡琵琶"。 其形状为曲颈, 梨形音箱, 有四柱四弦,很像目前在阿拉伯国家常见的乌特琴(Oud 或 Ud)或古波斯的巴尔巴特琴(Barbat)。横抱琵琶用拨子演奏。 现代的琵琶就是由这种曲项琵琶演变发展而来的。



In the preface to his verse Ode to Pipa, Xuan Fu of the Jin Dynasty (265-420 AD) wrote: "...the pipa appeared in the late Qin period. When the people suffered from being forced to build the Great Wall, they played the instrument to express their resentment". By the Han Dynasty (206 BC -- 220 AD), the instrument developed into its form of four strings and twelve frets, plucked with fingernails and known as pipa or qin-pipa [1]. In the Western Jin Dynasty (256-316), the qin-pipa was named after the famous scholar, one of "the seven sages of the Bamboo Forest", Ruan Xian, who was a great master on this instrument. (Note that Ji Kong, grand master of the seven stringed zither qin, was among the seven sages who were friends and often met for music and wine). The instrument has been to this day called the ruan whereas the name pipa specifically referred to a new version in the same family of instruments.


Musicians in a scene from paradise, Yulin Cave 25, Tang Dynasty

A Sui Dynasty (581–618)terracotta pipa-player in a suit of armor

隋朝时候的弹琵琶的兵马俑


到了唐代(公元7-9世纪)琵琶的发展出现了一个高峰。当时上至宫廷乐队, 下至民间演唱都少不了琵琶, 随成为当时非常盛行的乐器, 而且在乐队处于领奏地位。这种盛况在我国古代诗词中有大量的记载。例如唐代诗人白居易在他的著名诗篇《琵琶行》中非常形象地对琵琶演奏及其音响效果这样的描述:“大弦嘈嘈如急雨,小弦切切如私语。嘈嘈切切错杂弹,大珠小珠落玉盘"。


到了唐代后期琵琶从演奏技法到制作构造上都得到了很大的发展。在演奏技法上最突出的改革是由横抱演奏变为竖抱演奏, 由手指直接演奏取代了用拨子演奏。琵琶构造方面最明显的改变是由四个音位增至十六个(即四相十二品)。同时它的颈部加宽,下部共鸣箱由宽变窄, 便于左手按下部音位。由于以上这俩项改革,琵琶演奏技法得到了空前的发展。据统计琵琶的指法共有五六十种。归纳起来,右手指法分两个系统: 一、轮指系统,二、弹挑系统。左手指法也分两个系统:一、按指系统, 二、推拉系统。



这都为复古重制的唐朝五弦琵琶,超美丽的!


The name "pípá" is made up of two Chinese syllables, "pí" (琵) and "pá" (琶). These, according to the Han Dynasty text by Liu Xi, refer to the way the instrument is played - "pí" is to strike outward with the right hand, and "pá" is to pluck inward towards the palm of the hand. The strings were played using a large plectrum in the Tang Dynasty, a technique still used now for the Japanese biwa. The plectrum was then gradually replaced by the fingernails of the right hand, although finger-playing techniques existed as early as Tang. The most basic technique, tantiao (彈挑), involves just the index finger and thumb (tan is striking with the index finger, tiao with the thumb). The fingers normally strike the strings of pipa in the opposite direction to the way a guitar is usually played, i.e. the fingers and thumb flick outward, unlike the guitar where the fingers and thumb normally pluck inward towards the palm of the hand. Plucking in the opposite direction to tan and tiao are called mo (抹) and gou (勾) respectively. When two strings are plucked at the same time with the index finger and thumb (i.e. the finger and thumb separate in one action), it is called fen (分), the reverse motion is called zhi (摭). A rapid strum with four fingers is called sao (掃), and rapid strumming in the reverse direction is called fu (拂). A distinctive sound of pipa is the tremolo produced by the lunzhi (輪指) technique which involves all the fingers and thumb of the right hand. It is however possible to produce the tremolo with just one or more fingers.


其中现今的日本琵琶(biwa)至今沿袭的是唐代琵琶的大拨子演奏技法。下图为日本琵琶和拨子。


The left hand techniques are important for the expressiveness of pipa music. Left-hand techniques that produce vibrato, portamento, glissando, pizzicato, harmonics or artificial harmonics found in violin or guitar are also be found in pipa. String-bending for example may be used to produce a glissando or portamento. Note however that the frets on all Chinese lutes are high so that the fingers and strings never touch the fingerboard in between the frets, this is different from many Western fretted instruments and allows for dramatic vibrato and other pitch changing effects to be produced by downward pressure to stretch the string, as with the Indian sitar, rather than a sideways action to bend the string, as on a guitar.


琵琶的左手技术是很重要的。左手技术产生的振音,滑音,滑音,在小提琴和吉他上可以做到的拨奏,泛音和人工泛音也能被琵琶使用。中国乐器的琴弦和品相之间的距离普遍比西洋乐器高,造成学习困难的同时,可以产生更多的技巧,比如推拉弦,手指可以在弦下方穿越,这在吉他和小提琴上是做不到的。但因为琴弦永远也无法接触到指板,中国乐器就无法产生西洋乐器的戏剧化的颤音和滑音,比如印度西塔琴可以做大范围的横向滑音。


Scene from a Ming Dynasty painting, Tao Gu Presents a Poem, c. 1515, by Tang Yin.

明朝唐伯虎画的画中出现了琵琶


Pipa (Chinese lute), wood, ivory, bone and silk, Ming dynasty (1368-1644)

明朝的琵琶,超级豪华



直至公元十五世纪左右,琵琶已拥有一批以《十面埋伏》和 《霸王卸甲》为代表的武曲以及以《月儿高》《思春》和《昭君怨》等为代表的文曲。所谓武曲,其特点是以写实和运用右手技法为主; 所谓文曲,其特点是以抒情和运用左手技法为主。这些乐曲已经成为中华民族音乐的瑰宝、琵琶艺术的珍品。琵琶传统上是五声音阶。 到了民国时期,已开始按照十二平均律增加琴码,目前标准的琵琶已有八相三十品,琵琶表现力和适应力大大加强,不仅可以演奏传统乐曲,而且可以演奏西洋和现代作品,并且有利于与交响乐队合作。 为后来的进一步发展创造了条件。到了公元二十世纪中后期,琵琶艺术又有了新的发展,在琵琶制作方面,原来用的丝质弦改成了尼龙钢丝弦,有的甚至采用银弦,加大了琵琶音量和共鸣。在技法上左手大拇指以及和弦的运用使琵琶的表现力再次大大提高。由此涌现出一大批融传统音乐和现代作曲理论为一体的优秀的独奏作品, 而且还出现了与各种乐器的重奏以及与小乐队和交响乐队的琵琶协奏曲。 到了二十一世纪琵琶不仅在中国呈现出回复盛唐时期的景象,而且越来越受到世界各国音乐爱好者的关注。不少传统乐曲和当代作品受到中外听众喜爱。下图为世界闻名的琵琶名曲中英文名字。


Traditional ChineseSimplified ChinesePinyinEnglish (translation)
十面埋伏十面埋伏Shí Mìan MaífúAmbushed from Ten Sides
夕陽簫鼓夕阳箫鼓Xīyáng Xīao GǔFlute and Drum at Sunset
陽春白雪阳春白雪Yángchūn BaíxuěWhite Snow in Spring Sunlight
龍船龙船LóngchuánDragon Boat
彝族舞曲彝族舞曲Yìzú WúqǔDance of the Yi People
大浪淘沙大浪淘沙Dàlàng Táo ShāBig Waves Pushing the Sand
昭君出塞昭君出塞Zhàojūn Chū SaìZhaojun Outside the Frontier
霸王卸甲霸王卸甲Bàwáng Xiè JiǎThe Warlord Takes Off His Armour
綠腰绿腰LǜyāoGreen Waist
春江花月夜春江花月夜Chūnjiāng Huā YuèyèMoonlit River in Spring


清朝时期的琵琶和其他乐器





魔女蓝:现代的琵琶多半没有以前的琵琶那么漂亮,但功能比较完善,演奏音域宽广,可以挑战更高技巧和表现力。琵琶作为中国传统乐器中演奏难度最高的乐器,有着“民族乐器之王”的称号,学习它也必须趁早。我一般对想要来学琵琶的成年人,直接就说算了。弹古筝几个月就可以弹点小曲子,琵琶弹上两年还在打基本功,所以大家对于琵琶弹得好的人,应该第一个念头就是:他(她)可是花了一番心血和苦功的。对于琵琶的革新和创造,我觉得自己重担在肩,今后要多多努力写曲子,为了这个超赞的乐器的继续发扬光大。也请大家作为一个中国人多多认识到自己民族瑰宝的价值!




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